Basement walls are essentially retaining walls which in most instances, in addition to the lateral forces from soil, pore pressure and surcharge must also carry axial forces due to gravity loads from slabs.
Retaining structures or a retaining wall is any constructed wall that holds back soil a liquid or other materials where there is an abrupt change in elevation. Retaining walls have been used for thousands of years, in the construction of terraced fields on a steep slope, or a railway through a hillside, a retaining wall is used in some form or another.
Timber posts are vertical elements, when utilized in any timber frame are principally subjected to both axial compressive actions and bending moments along one or both axes. In other words, a timber post is the equivalent of a column, but in this case the term ‘post’ refers to timber or steel.
This article discusses axial shortening and its causes, how they can be predicted, evaluated and mitigated. It would explain the measures structural engineers and building contractors may employ to counter its effect. It would also make references to the current codes of practices were necessary.
Selecting the most appropriate foundation type is often a very difficult undertaking in design and construction. Even, perhaps the most important part of the design process. Rightly so, it can be argued that the foundation of any structure is the most principal component of that structure
While many engineers make the very valid argument that software prevent errors and human fallibility, many other engineers including this writer make the equally valid argument that these tools contribute to creating errors. Are these software’s actually aiding us to become better engineers or are they actually replacing us, at least, in cognitive sense, as engineers?
An inverted T beam foundation consist of an upstand ground beam embedded in a concrete slab, utilized to transmit a system of column loads safely to the ground (Figure 1).
The perils of having an opinion in architecture, engineering and construction is that all your opinions and recommendations are treated as notorious facts, even though they could be wrong. This article seeks to establish the link between design defects and issues of competency.
This article discusses the reuse, and refurbishment strategies adopted for the Triton Square building in London to enable the addition of three extra floors. Increasing the total floor area by 70% while achieving a SCORS A rating for the overall carbon per unit area for the scheme.
This article aims to address the key ethical questions that may arises when an engineer is contacted to review the work of another engineer.
In any tall building, the lateral forces is unarguably the most critical factor. Hence, fundamental to the design of any tall building is the lateral stability system.
Timber joists are one of the most basic structural elements found in many timber frame construction. They are closely spaced timber beams (typically in the range of (450-900mm) used to support a suspended ceiling, timber flooring or sheathings. In this article, we shall discuss the design procedure of timber joist. All advice given will be based on the guidance and recommendations of BS EN 1993-1-1:2004 Eurocode 5 Design of Timber Structures- Part 1-1: General common rules of buildings.
High above St. Lawrence River, on a hot sunny day in August, 1907, workers were working on the Quebec bridge when suddenly, the sound of twisting metals pierced the air, and the giant cantilever bridge under construction failed, crashing into the river with enormous force, such that people miles away in Quebec City believed an earthquake had hit.
The reading and interpretation of structural engineering drawings is a much-underrated skill. A skill that is often not taught but learnt through frequent exposure to structural engineering contents and a drive to fully understand them. In simple form, a structural drawing can be defined as any drawing consisting of plans or set of plans and details explicitly showing how a building or structure will be constructed
Many problems of long spanning in structural engineering can be resolved through the use of steel trusses. These days, long span structures are very popular– from sport arena roofs to auditorium galleries, airport terminals, railway stations etc….
There is no consensus on a universal definition for tall buildings, even in design and practice, the definition of what should be classified as high-rise, medium and low-rise is ambiguous….
A properly designed foundation must deliver these loads to the soil without overstressing the soil which could otherwise cause excessive settlement or shear failure of the bearing soil. In-order to avoid overstressing the soil geotechnical engineers and structural engineers must determine the bearing capacity of the soil upon which the structure is to be founded.
The design of piled foundation unlike other foundation types largely falls within the remit of a geotechnical engineer with little assistance from the structural engineer. The first step requires the geotechnical team to conduct a detailed site investigation
For any project requiring deep foundations, the piles should be one of the first aspects of scheme design the structural designer is expected to consider…
Somewhere in Manhattan, a team of carpenters, welders and labourers were secretly working through the night, retrofitting steel connections under the directive of one of America’s finest Highrise structural designer, in a race to salvage the world’s 7th Tallest building. The skyscraper was meant to be a structural masterpiece but instead was poised to become one of the greatest engineering disasters of all time. Hurricane season was approaching and even a moderate storm would put the lives of over 200k people at risk
Steel portal frames are the most common and cost-effective structural solutions for single-storey buildings with gable-pitched roofs. In fact, about 50% of the steelwork in the U.K is used up in the construction of single-storey buildings, of which portal frames form the greater part…
This article presents the design of concealed concrete beams, sometimes referred to as the “wide or strong band beams…
Unlike members in axial tension, when structural elements are subjected to axial compression, they become vulnerable to failure through instability as a result of their geometrical properties rather than their material properties…
A truss is a triangulated assembly of interconnected elements, pinned at the nodes and typically having all external forces and reactions applied at the nodes (Figure 1). Trusses are extremely strong and a very cost-effective solution when compared to other structural options
At the backdrop of any structural failure are lessons to be learnt, but do engineers actually learn anything?… Find out!
The second willow island, West Virginia cooling tower collapsed while still under construction on April 27, 1978, killing all 51 workers. It is regarded as the deadliest construction accident in the whole of US history.
. In this post, we are going to consider how to design concrete shear walls according to Eurocode 2.
Thus, one of the methods of ensuring lateral stability and avoiding excessive lateral deflection is by deploying shear walls across the width of the building to resist the lateral forces.
Flat slabs are reinforced concrete slabs supported directly on columns, without beams. They are sometimes thickened at the columns to form column drops.
Waffle slabs are not different from a ribbed slab, their design is indeed based on the same principle as the ribbed and troughed slab system.…
Whilst construction methodology tends not to be an issue in many buildings, the same cannot be said for bridges. Nearly all bridges cannot and should not be designed without good knowledge of its temporary stages and construction methodology4. In most cases it is the construction method that determines the design. In selecting the best scheme, a bridge designer would aim to select a construction method and a bridge layout as they are basically entwined.