This article describes the process of designing a laterally loaded masonry wall to Eurocode 6. It will highlight masonry and the relationship between its geometry, support condition and material properties when used as a structural material.
Ground improvement is the modification or treatment of weak and loose soil in order to improve their bearing capacities and potential settlement characteristics.
This twisting/rotation is known as torsion. Torsion generates forces within structural elements that they are rarely efficient at resisting. It would normally result in significant increase in element size or ultimately lead to change in structural form where they are found to be acting. Torsion in structures is best avoided as far as possible.
This article is concerned with the derivation and application of these notional loading, which is classified as Equivalent Horizontal Forces within the Eurocodes. The article also illustrates how the notional horizontal loads are incorporated into the design process.