Some failures are caused by the most stealthy human factors: corruption and greed. This situation is even worse in the third-world countries where the use of sub-standard materials, faulty construction and cutting corners around standard specifications is highly prevalent.
Ribbed slabs incorporate voids to the soffits of slabs or replace voids with lighter materials.
Column base plates are provided beneath steel columns in order to transmit the applied design forces safely to the foundations. Steel columns are heavily loaded and their cross-sections are typically small…….
The second willow island, West Virginia cooling tower collapsed while still under construction on April 27, 1978, killing all 51 workers. It is regarded as the deadliest construction accident in the whole of US history.