This twisting/rotation is known as torsion. Torsion generates forces within structural elements that they are rarely efficient at resisting. It would normally result in significant increase in element size or ultimately lead to change in structural form where they are found to be acting. Torsion in structures is best avoided as far as possible.
This article is concerned with the derivation and application of these notional loading, which is classified as Equivalent Horizontal Forces within the Eurocodes. The article also illustrates how the notional horizontal loads are incorporated into the design process.
In the design of trusses, timber is another alternative that should be considered at the preliminary design stage. When dealing with a small-moderate span, timber trusses are largely economical and the expertise required for fabrication is far less relative to steel solutions
Extreme loading situations are often known as ‘accidental loads’ because they occur under circumstances that are typically due to events that are inherently unlikely to occur.
The most common and conventional method of designing against shear in reinforced concrete structures is via the provision of shear-links (stirrups). However, in certain scenarios, shear cannot be resisted via the use of links alone, especially where the applied shear-force is enormous. In such scenarios, a very effective way of resisting shear in concrete is by combining shear-links with the provision of bent-up bars
This article, presents a range of floor systems utilized in multi-storey steel frames, with the advantage and disadvantages of each system compared with requirement of a project. Seven floor systems are listed and afterwards described
Basement walls are essentially retaining walls which in most instances, in addition to the lateral forces from soil, pore pressure and surcharge must also carry axial forces due to gravity loads from slabs.
An inverted T beam foundation consist of an upstand ground beam embedded in a concrete slab, utilized to transmit a system of column loads safely to the ground (Figure 1).
This article aims to address the key ethical questions that may arises when an engineer is contacted to review the work of another engineer.
Many problems of long spanning in structural engineering can be resolved through the use of steel trusses. These days, long span structures are very popular– from sport arena roofs to auditorium galleries, airport terminals, railway stations etc….